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What is Biometrics?


Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Among the features measured are fingerprints, iris,face, hand geometry, handwriting, retinal, vein, and voice etc. sing a unique, physical attribute of your body, such as your fingerprint or iris, to effortlessly identify and verify that you are who you claim to be, is the best and easiest solution in the market today. That is the simple truth and power of Biometrics Technology today. Although biometric technology has been around for many years, modern advances in this emerging technology, coupled with big reductions in cost, now make biometrics readily available and affordable to consumers, small business owner, larger corporations and public sector agencies alike.

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Fingerprint Authentication

Fingerprints are one of those bizarre twists of nature. Human beings happen to have built-in, easily accessible identity cards. You have a unique design, which represents you alone, literally at your fingertips. How did this happen? Finger skin is made of friction ridges, with pores (sweat glands). Friction ridges are created during fetal live and only the general shape is genetically defined. Friction ridges remains the same all life long, only growing up to adult size. They reconstruct the same if not too severe injury.

Minutiae are the discontinuities of the ridges

  • Endings, the points at which a ridge stops
  • Bifurcations, the point at which one ridge divides into two
  • Dots, very small ridges
  • Islands, ridges slightly longer than dots, occupying a middle space between two temporarily divergent ridges
  • Ponds or lakes, empty spaces between two temporarily divergent ridges
  • Spurs, a notch protruding from a ridge
  • Bridges, small ridges joining two longer adjacent ridges
  • Crossovers, two ridges which cross each other
  • The core is the inner point, normally in the middle of the print, around which swirls, loops, or arches center. It is frequently characterized by a ridge ending and several acutely curved ridges.
  • Deltas are the points, normally at the lower left and right hand of the fingerprint, around which a triangular series of ridges center.

What is FAR and what is FRR?

Every biometric classification system has two parametrs to idenify its accuracy: the rates FAR and FRR. FAR (False Acceptance Rate) is the % of falulty recognized fingerprint, that are faulty recognized as authorized. Typically must be equol or lower to 0.01%. FRR (False Acceptance Rate) is the % of faulty not recognized fingerprints. Typically must be equol or lower to 0.1%. Every biometic system can be parametrized changing one of these two rates, considering that are inversally proportional: if FAR is decremented, the FRR in incremented. Some biometric systems provovides another rate: the EER (Equal Error Rate), which is the value where FAR=FRR.

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